Evaluating the Effects of Electric and Magnetic Loading on the Performance of Single- And Double-Rotor Axial-Flux PM Machines

Narges Taran, Greg Heins, Vandana Rallabandi, Dean Patterson, Dan M. Ionel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

19 Scopus citations


Axial-flux permanent-magnet machines are used particularly in applications requiring a compact structure. Their disc-shaped topology and axial airgap have led to a variety of configurations including two popular ones: the yokeless and segmented armature (YASA), and the single-stator single-rotor or single-sided machine. In this study, a comprehensive comparative analysis of these configurations is conducted at different magnetic and electric loadings. It is found that at lower loadings, typically employed for air-cooled machines, the torque/ampere characteristics of the YASA machine are almost identical to those of a single-sided machine constructed with half the magnet volume. On the other hand, the single-sided machine outperforms the YASA machine when the magnet volumes in both machines are maintained equal. However, for higher electric loadings, the torque/ampere characteristics of the YASA machine droop significantly less than those of the single-sided machine. This article includes analytical estimations, which are verified with experimentally validated finite element analysis (FEA) simulations. In addition, the impacts of the armature reaction on saturation and the magnetic flux linkage, the magnet losses, and eddy current losses in both machines are also explored.

Original languageEnglish
Article number9052478
Pages (from-to)3488-3497
Number of pages10
JournalIEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Issue number4
StatePublished - Jul 1 2020

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The support of Regal Beloit Corporation, University of Kentucky, the L. Stanley Pigman endowment and the SPARK program, and ANSYS Inc. is gratefully acknowledged.

Publisher Copyright:
© 1972-2012 IEEE.


  • Armature reaction
  • axial-flux permanent magnet (AFPM)
  • eddy current losses
  • magnet losses
  • power factor
  • torque production
  • yokeless and segmented armature (YASA)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Control and Systems Engineering
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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