Evaluation of 4 Different Irrigating Systems for Apical Extrusion of Sodium Hypochlorite

Ross A. Yost, Brian E. Bergeron, Timothy C. Kirkpatrick, Mark D. Roberts, Howard W. Roberts, Van T. Himel, Kent A. Sabey

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

49 Scopus citations


Introduction The aim of this study was to evaluate NaOCl apical extrusion by using negative apical pressure (EndoVac), sonic agitation (EndoActivator), side-vented needle (Max-i-Probe), and photon induced photoacoustic streaming (PIPS 10 mJ and PIPS 20 mJ) laser irrigation in an in vitro gel model. Methods Extracted mandibular and maxillary central incisors (n = 18) were prepared to size 35/.04 and 55/.04, respectively. Teeth were mounted in transparent containers with clear acrylic and suspended in a color-changing pH-sensitive gel, creating a closed system. By using a crossover design, each tooth was sequentially irrigated by using 6% NaOCl with each device following manufacturers' recommendations. Each tooth served as its own control. Pre-irrigation and post-irrigation buccal and proximal view photographs served to measure the longest distance of extrusion and were analyzed with ImageJ software. Mean results were analyzed by using Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn post hoc test (P <.05). Results There were no significant differences between EndoVac, EndoActivator, and the passive extrusion groups. The EndoVac and EndoActivator groups produced significantly less extrusion than PIPS irrigation. Max-i-Probe extrusion results were more variable than those of EndoActivator but had no significant difference. Across all irrigation systems, there were no significant differences with respect to apical preparation size. Conclusions Under the in vitro conditions of this study, no difference was found between the 10 mJ and 20 mJ PIPS laser groups. EndoVac demonstrated significantly less potential for apical extrusion than PIPS and Max-i-Probe, whereas apical preparation size did not significantly affect extrusion of irrigant. The potential for apical extrusion of endodontic irrigants should be a consideration when selecting a system for final irrigation.

Original languageEnglish
Article number3155
Pages (from-to)1530-1534
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Endodontics
Issue number9
StatePublished - Sep 1 2015


  • Apical extrusion
  • EndoActivator
  • EndoVac
  • PIPS
  • irrigation
  • sodium hypochlorite

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Dentistry


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