Evaluation of a rapid determination of fasting heat production and respiratory quotient in Holstein steers using the washed rumen technique

D. H. Kim, K. R. McLeod, J. L. Klotz, A. F. Koontz, A. P. Foote, D. L. Harmon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations

Abstract

The objective of this study was to validate use of the washed rumen (WR) technique for rapid measurement of fasting heat production (HP) and respiratory quotient (RQ). Sixteen Holstein steers were divided into 2 groups of 8 for a comparison of measurements made during feeding (both groups; 16 steers) and fasting (8 steers; BW = 237 ± 17 kg) and using the WR model (8 steers; BW = 322 ± 30 kg). Steers were maintained in a controlled temperature (21°C) environment and treated as follows: 10 d diet adaptation, 1 d measurement of respiratory gases at 1.5 × NEm (Fed state; all steers d 11), 1 d measurement of respiratory gases under fasting conditions (Fasted; 8 steers d 12) or using the WR technique (8 steers d 12), and 7 d to monitor the reestablishment of intake. Steers were offered alfalfa cubes top-dressed with a mineral premix at 1.5 × NEm. Using an indwelling probe, core temperature (CT) and heart rate (HR) were monitored continuously during the days respiratory gases were measured. For fasting measurements using the WR technique, the reticulorumen was washed and refilled with ruminal buffer (NaCl = 96, NaHCO3 = 24, KHCO3 = 30, K2HPO4 = 2, CaCl2 = 1.5, and MgCl2 = 1.5 mmol/kg of buffer) with Cr-EDTA aerated with 75% N2 and 25% CO2 before introduction to the rumen. Mean hourly CT, RQ, and daily HP between Fasted steers and WR steers were decreased for the WR steers on average from 8 to 24 h after removal of rumen contents (P = 0.049, P < 0.001, and P = 0.076, respectively). Fitting RQ data obtained during fasting to a 1-phase decay equation showed that plateau was achieved at 0.756 ± 0.003 and 0.719 ± 0.003 and time to plateau was 9 and 8 h for Fasted and WR steers, respectively. Mean RQ after WR were 0.778, 0.732, and 0.726 (SEM = 0.003) for time segments 0 to 8 h, 9 to 16 h, and 17 to 24 h, respectively. Mean fasting HP after WR was 18.8, 16.8, and 16.5 (SEM = 0.51) kJ/(h{bullet operator}kg0.75) for time segments 0 to 8 h, 9 to 16 h, and 17 to 24 h, respectively. There were no significant differences in RQ and fasting HP (P = 0.23 and P = 0.81, respectively) between the time segment of 9 to 16 h and 17 to 24 h after rumen washing. In contrast, both RQ and HP differed (P = 0.090 and P = 0.081, respectively) across these same time segments for the Fasted group. Therefore, an accurate measurement of fasting HP can be obtained using a shorter-term measurement with the WR technique. This approach provides an alternative to the traditional 48 h fasting time or measurements made during the third and fourth day after starvation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4267-4276
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Animal Science
Volume91
Issue number9
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 2013

Keywords

  • Energy metabolism
  • Fasting heat production
  • Respiratory quotient
  • Ruminant

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Animal Science and Zoology
  • Genetics

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