Evaluation of smoking cessation interventions for veterans in HIV clinics in the United States: a theory-informed concurrent mixed-method study

Seth Himelhoch, Veronica P.S. Njie-Carr, Amanda Peeples, Crystal Awuah, Amanda Federline, Isabella Morton

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objective: Although veterans living with HIV infection are burdened with smoking-related morbidities, few studies have explored theory-informed, evidence-based smoking cessation interventions in the Veterans Affairs (VA) Health System. Method: In this concurrent mixed-method study, we sought to better understand factors influencing the adoption of existing evidence-based smoking cessation interventions (reminders, telephone quit lines, pharmacological) for veterans in VA HIV clinics. We explored the alignment of the revised Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services Framework (i-PARIHS) with study results. Results: Nineteen clinicians working at eight HIV clinics in the VA System participated in the study. Seven themes were identified with relative quantitative and qualitative data convergence of clinicians’ perceptions of the importance of integrating evidence-based smoking cessation interventions for veterans with HIV infection. Conclusion: Identified themes underscore the need for clinicians to provide smoking cessation training, supportive care, and motivate veterans living with HIV infection to quit smoking. Integrating smoking cessation programs into HIV treatment plans in the veteran patient population is critical. Dedicated time to fully implement these efforts will maximize smoking cessation intervention efforts and will yield successful utilization and subsequent patient compliance. Importantly, combination strategies will ensure cessation program impact and sustainability. Trial registration:Netherlands National Trial Register identifier: ntr050.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)724-740
Number of pages17
JournalHealth Psychology and Behavioral Medicine
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2021

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
©, This work was authored as part of the Contributor's official duties as an Employee of the United States Government and is therefore a work of the United States Government. In accordance with 17 U.S.C. 105, no copyright protection is available for such works under U.S. Law.


  • Barriers
  • HIV infection
  • Veterans Affairs
  • enablers
  • i-PARIHS framework

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Health(social science)
  • General Psychology
  • Behavioral Neuroscience


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