Evaluation of the quality of four commercially available natural enemies

Robert J. O'Neil, Kris L. Giles, John J. Obrycki, Daniel L. Mahr, Jesusa C. Legaspi, Kerry Katovich

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

53 Scopus citations


The post-shipment quality of four species of natural enemies, Encarsia formosa Gahan (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae), Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), and Hippodamia convergens Guerin (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), was evaluated from shipments from 10 companies ordered over 2.5 years at three locations. Evaluations included the numbers received, emergence rates, sex ratio, survivorship, species identity, reproduction, and parasitism. In general, natural enemies arrived on time in protective shipping containers. There were considerable differences in the numbers received, depending on the company supplying the natural enemy and time of year. There were also differences among companies for survivorship and emergence rates of some natural enemies. Chrysopids other than C. carnea were shipped and cannibalism by larvae reduced the numbers received. Approximately 20% of coccinellids were found to be parasitized. Using average characteristics of H. convergens shipments, an estimated 75-508 reproductively active females would be received from an order of 1000 beetles. If confirmed by further study, information such as this could provide customers an 'industry standard' for the expected number of natural enemies in a given reproductive or other physiological state.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-8
Number of pages8
JournalBiological Control
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1998


  • Augmentation
  • Chrysoperla carnea
  • Encarsia formosa
  • Hippodamia convergens
  • Quality control
  • Trichogramma pretiosum

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Agronomy and Crop Science
  • Insect Science


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