Exclusive and dual menthol/non-menthol cigarette use with ENDS among adults, 2013–2019

Bukola Usidame, Jana Hirschtick, Luis Zavala-Arciniega, Delvon T. Mattingly, Akash Patel, Rafael Meza, David T. Levy, Nancy L. Fleischer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


This study examines patterns of use for menthol/non-menthol cigarettes and Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems (ENDS) from 2013 to 2019 among U.S. adults. We calculated the weighted population prevalence of current exclusive and dual use for each product (i.e., menthol/non-menthol cigarettes and ENDS) stratified by age, sex, race/ethnicity, household income, and education in all surveys using data from three nationally representative surveys: the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study Waves 1–4 (W1-W4), 2013–2018; the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) 2015; and the Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey (TUS-CPS) 2014–2015 (T1) and 2018–2019 (T2). Exclusive non-menthol cigarette use (PATH: 9.0%W1, 9.4%W4; NHIS: 8.7%; TUS-CPS: 8.1%T1, 6.9%T2) and dual non-menthol cigarette/ENDS use (PATH: 2.4%W1, 1.5%W4; NHIS: 1.5%; TUS-CPS: 1.1%T1, 0.6%T2) were the most common single and dual tobacco use patterns, respectively, across all surveys. Both exclusive menthol cigarette use (3.9%T1-3.3%T2) and non-menthol cigarette use (8.1%T1-6.9%T2) declined in TUS-CPS from 2014/5–2018/9. Dual menthol cigarette/ENDS use also declined (PATH: 1.5%W1-1.1%W4; TUS-CPS: 0.5%T1-0.3%T2), as did dual non-menthol cigarette/ENDS use (PATH: 2.4%W1-1.5%W4; TUS-CPS 1.1%T1-0.6%T2). Across surveys, exclusive menthol cigarette use and dual menthol cigarette/ENDS use were more common among individuals aged 25–34 years old; non-Hispanic Blacks (NHBs); and low-income earners. Single and dual use patterns of menthol/non-menthol cigarettes and ENDS have declined over time. Nevertheless, certain vulnerable population groups, including NHBs and low-income earners, disproportionately use exclusive menthol cigarettes and dual menthol cigarette/ENDS, making menthol bans a potential policy target for reducing tobacco-related health disparities.

Original languageEnglish
Article number101566
JournalPreventive Medicine Reports
StatePublished - Dec 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The authors disclosed receipt of the following financial support for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article: This work was supported by the National Cancer Institute of the National Institutes of Health [grant number U54-CA229974]. The opinions expressed in this article are the authors’ own and do not reflect the views of the National Institutes of Health, the Department of Health and Human Services, or the United States government.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 The Author(s)


  • Cigarettes
  • Dual use
  • Electronic cigarettes
  • Menthol
  • Sociodemographic disparities

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Health Informatics
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


Dive into the research topics of 'Exclusive and dual menthol/non-menthol cigarette use with ENDS among adults, 2013–2019'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this