Positive-strand RNA viruses utilize various subcellular membrane surfaces for replication. The subverted membranes facilitate the assembly of viral replication complexes by sequestering viral and co-opted host proteins to reach high local concentrations and protect viral RNAs from destruction by host antiviral responses. In this review, we discuss that tombusviruses and nodaviruses are capable of exploiting alternative subcellular membranes in cells and in vitro in the absence of primary membranes targeted by these viruses or when the replication proteins are retargeted. The roles of protein factors and lipids and membrane contact sites in replication site selection are also discussed. Surprisingly, tombusviruses could also exploit expanded ER membranes, which provide enhanced subcellular environment for replication. The expanded ER membranes are formed due to deletion of a lipin homolog, which is responsible for de novo lipid synthesis and formation of lipid droplets, suggesting that host genes connected to genetic diseases affect virus replication. Overall, these viruses show remarkable flexibility in utilizing various subcellular membranes for replication under different conditions.
|Number of pages||8|
|Journal||Current Opinion in Virology|
|State||Published - Dec 2014|
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
We thank members of our laboratory for valuable discussions on the areas of this review. We apologize to those colleagues whose work could not be included because of space restrictions. This work was supported by NSF ( MCB 1122039 ) awarded to PDN.
© 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Copyright 2018 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.
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