Exploring classroom teachers’ efficacy towards implementing physical activity breaks in the classroom

Hayley B. McKown, Erin E. Centeio, Jeanne M. Barcelona, Christine Pedder, E. Whitney G Moore, Heather E. Erwin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine classroom teachers’ self-efficacy towards, and perceptions of, physical activity in the classroom. Design: The study is a convergent mixed-methods design in which both qualitative and quantitative data were collected simultaneously at one time point. Setting: A convenience sample was recruited through email from two school districts to participate in an online survey and follow-up phone interview. Method: The survey consisted of demographic variables, as well as the validated 18-item Teacher Efficacy Toward Providing Physical Activity in the Classroom Scale (TETPPACS). Quantitatively, descriptive statistics were calculated to explore general relationships; qualitatively, constant comparison and inductive analysis were used to better understand teacher efficacy and perceptions towards providing physical activity in the classroom. Results: Sixteen participants (87% female; Mage = 38.4 years, Mexperience =12.25 years) representing two states and 12 schools completed both measures. Participants represented all grade levels and varied in levels of general efficacy (M = 3.18, range = 1.78–4.06), student barrier efficacy (M = 3.30, range = 1.29–4.29), institutional efficacy (M = 2.92, range = 1.33–4.22) and educational efficacy (M = 3.60, range = 2.00–5.00). Three themes emerged as part of the qualitative analysis: (1) implementation barriers, (2) the face of teacher preparation and (3) knowledge and intentionality. Conclusion: Results offer further evidence of the disconnect that exists for classroom teachers as well as insights into classroom teachers’ perceptions of and self-efficacy towards physical activity in the classroom.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)585-596
Number of pages12
JournalHealth Education Journal
Issue number5
StatePublished - Aug 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© The Author(s) 2022.


  • elementary education
  • primary education
  • secondary education
  • whole-of-school

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Health(social science)
  • Education


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