Exploring Symptom Clusters in People With Heart Failure

Jumin Park, Debra K. Moser, Kathleen Griffith, Jeffrey R. Harring, Meg Johantgen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

30 Scopus citations


Patients with heart failure (HF) experience multiple symptoms or symptom clusters. The purposes of this study were to (a) determine if distinct latent classes of HF symptoms could be identified, and (b) explore whether sociodemographic and clinical characteristics influenced symptom cluster membership. A total of 4,011 HF patients recruited from outpatient setting completed the Minnesota Living With Heart Failure Questionnaire (MLHFQ), including five physical symptoms (edema, shortness of breath, fatigue-increased need to rest, fatigue-low energy, and sleep difficulties) and three psychological symptoms (worrying, feeling depressed, and cognitive problems). Four distinct classes using latent class profile analysis were identified: low distress (Class 1), physical distress (Class 2), psychological distress (Class 3), and high distress (Class 4). Significant differences among the four latent classes were found for age, education level, and comorbidities. Symptom clusters are useful for recognition of HF symptoms, allowing for the development of strategies that target symptom groups.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)165-181
Number of pages17
JournalClinical Nursing Research
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 1 2019

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© The Author(s) 2017.


  • cluster analysis
  • heart failure
  • signs and symptoms

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Nursing


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