Exploring the association between a cholecystokinin promoter polymorphism (rs1799923) and posttraumatic stress disorder in combat veterans

Christal L. Badour, R. Louis Hirsch, Jingmei Zhang, Howard Mandel, Mark Hamner, Zhewu Wang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


Background: Cholecystokinin (CCK) is a neuropeptide that has been implicated in understanding the acquisition and extinction of fear. Research on CCK in anxiety has primarily focused on understanding panic attacks and panic disorder. Emerging data suggests that CCK may also hold promise in understanding the development and maintenance of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Method: The present study examined whether a single nucleotide polymorphism in the promoter region of the CCK gene (C. >. T; rs1799923) was associated with an increased prevalence of PTSD as well as with severity of PTSD symptoms among a sample of 457 combat veterans. Results: Results demonstrated that participants with either the heterozygous or homozygous T allele had an increased prevalence of PTSD relative to participants with the CC genotype (OR. = 2.17; 95% CI [1.37-3.43]). Limitations: The relatively small sample size precluded examination of racial/ethnic differences. Findings were also limited by the absence of a systematic assessment of comorbid anxiety psychopathology. Conclusions: These data offer preliminary evidence supporting an association between the rs1799923 polymorphism in the CCK gene and PTSD. Additional research is needed to better understand the nature of this relationship.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)78-83
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Anxiety Disorders
StatePublished - Dec 1 2015

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported by the Ralph H. Johnson VA Medical Center and the Clinical Sciences Program of the Department of Veterans Affairs (Merit Review grant # 1I01CX000487-01A1 ), as well as the National Institute of Mental Health (T32 MH018869 ; Dr. Christal Badour). The views expressed in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the position or policy of the Department of Veterans Affairs, the National Institutes of Health, or the United States government. There are no conflicts of interest to disclose.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2015.


  • Anxiety
  • CCK
  • Cholecystokinin
  • PTSD
  • Posttraumatic Stress

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Psychology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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