Exploring the validity of a teachers' self-efficacy scale in five countries

Robert M. Klassen, Mimi Bong, Ellen L. Usher, Wan Har Chong, Vivien S. Huan, Isabella Y.F. Wong, Tasos Georgiou

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

288 Scopus citations


The purpose of this article was twofold. The first purpose was to test the validity of the Teachers' Sense of Self-Efficacy Scale (TSES) in five settings-Canada, Cyprus, Korea, Singapore, and the United States. The second purpose was, by extension, to establish the importance of the teacher self-efficacy construct across diverse teaching conditions. Multi-group confirmatory factor analysis was used to better understand the measurement invariance of the scale across countries, after which the relationship between the TSES, its three factors, and job satisfaction was explored. The TSES showed convincing evidence of reliability and measurement invariance across the five countries, and the relationship between the TSES and job satisfaction was similar across settings. The study provides general evidence that teachers' self-efficacy is a valid construct across culturally diverse settings and specific evidence that teachers' self-efficacy showed a similar relationship with teachers' job satisfaction in five contrasting settings.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)67-76
Number of pages10
JournalContemporary Educational Psychology
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2009

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The authors gratefully acknowledge funding support to the first author from the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada. Thanks are also extended to the anonymous reviewers for suggestions that were most helpful in improving the clarity of the paper.


  • Canada
  • Cross-cultural
  • Cyprus
  • International
  • Job satisfaction
  • Korea
  • Motivation
  • Self-efficacy
  • Singapore
  • Teachers
  • United States
  • Validity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology


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