Extending Sexual Objectification Theory and Research to Minority Populations, Couples, and Men

Sarah R. Heimerdinger-Edwards, David L. Vogel, Joseph H. Hammer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Scopus citations


This reaction highlights several strengths of this major contribution and discusses some future directions in this line of research.The authors offer research ideas in the areas of cultural and cross-cultural issues, couples and relationships, as well as direct and indirect effects of sexual objectification on men. In terms of providing increasing support for the model of sexual objectification and substance use, the authors suggest more exhaustive studies that can look at the causal order of variables and consider such possibilities as a reciprocal effect of depression and substance use or a combined effect of depression and eating disorders leading to substance use, as well as examine possible moderating variables that could serve as risk or protective factors for negative outcomes. Furthermore, the authors also offer future directions for research on the interpersonal effects of sexual objectification. Specifically, they offer research ideas related to sexual objectification and relationship disruptions, continued gender stereotyping, as well as negative direct and indirect consequences for men, such as conveying unrealistic messages about how to establish and maintain genuine intimate relationships with women.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)140-152
Number of pages13
JournalCounseling Psychologist
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2011


  • cross-cultural
  • diversity
  • masculinity
  • relationships
  • sexual objectification

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Applied Psychology


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