We have examined the possible role of extracellular reduction-oxidation (redox) state in regulation of biological/biochemical features associated with prostate cancer cell invasion. DU145, PC-3, and RWPE1-derived human prostate cancer (WPE1-NB26) cell lines were used for the present in vitro analysis. Increasing levels of nitric oxide using S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine resulted in a decrease in cell invasion ability, whereas increasing levels of extracellular superoxide radical (O2.-) using xanthine/xanthine oxidase resulted in an increase in cell invasion ability in these three cell lines. WPE1-NB26 cells exhibited an increased glutathione/glutathione disulfide ratio in the medium in comparison with RWPE1 cells (immortalized but nonmalignant prostate epithelial cells), suggesting an alteration of extracellular redox state of WPE1-NB26 cells. We hypothesized that O2.- production at or near the plasma membrane or in the adjacent extracellular matrix at least partially regulated prostate cancer cell invasion. Using adenovirus-mediated extracellular superoxide dismutase (ECSOD) gene transduction to enzymatically decrease O2.- levels, we showed that in the presence of heparin, adenovirus ECSOD gene transduction resulted in an increase in the expression of EC-SOD outside the cells with resultant inhibition of cell invasion ability. This inhibition correlated with reduced metalloproteinase [matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 2/membrane type 1-MMP] activities and increased levels of extracellular nitrite. Our results suggest a prominent role of extracellular redox status in regulation of cell invasion, which may provide opportunities for therapeutic interventions.
|Number of pages||7|
|State||Published - Jul 15 2008|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research