ExtRamp: A novel algorithm for extracting the ramp sequence based on the tRNA adaptation index or relative codon adaptiveness

Justin B. Miller, Logan R. Brase, Perry G. Ridge

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations


Different species, genes, and locations within genes use different codons to fine-tune gene expression. Within genes, the ramp sequence assists in ribosome spacing and decreases downstream collisions by incorporating slowly-translated codons at the beginning of a gene. Although previously reported as occurring in some species, no previous attempt at extracting the ramp sequence from specific genes has been published.We present ExtRamp, a software package that quickly extracts ramp sequences from any species using the tRNA adaptation index or relative codon adaptiveness. Different filters facilitate the analysis of codon efficiency and enable identification of genes with a ramp sequence. We validate the existence of a ramp sequence in most species by running ExtRamp on 229 742 339 genes across 23 428 species. We evaluate differences in reported ramp sequences when we use different parameters. Using the strictest ramp sequence cut-off, we show that acrossmost taxonomic groups, ramp sequences are approximately 20-40 codons long and occur in about 10% of gene sequences. We also show that in Drosophila melanogaster as gene expression increases, a higher proportion of genes have ramp sequences. We provide a framework for performing this analysis on other species. ExtRamp is freely available at https://github.com/ridgelab/ExtRamp.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1123-1131
Number of pages9
JournalNucleic Acids Research
Issue number3
StatePublished - Feb 20 2019

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© The Author(s) 2019.

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Genetics


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