Factor Analysis of Health Care Access With Ovarian Cancer Surgery and Gynecologic Oncologist Consultation

Anjali Gupta, Quan Chen, Lauren E. Wilson, Bin Huang, Maria Pisu, Margaret Liang, Rebecca A. Previs, Haley A. Moss, Kevin C. Ward, Maria J. Schymura, Andrew Berchuck, Tomi F. Akinyemiju

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Importance: Poor health care access (HCA) is associated with racial and ethnic disparities in ovarian cancer (OC) survival. Objective: To generate composite scores representing health care affordability, availability, and accessibility via factor analysis and to evaluate the association between each score and key indicators of guideline-adherent care. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective cohort study used data from patients with OC diagnosed between 2008 and 2015 in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Medicare database. The SEER Medicare database uses cancer registry data and linked Medicare claims from 12 US states. Included patients were Hispanic, non-Hispanic Black, and non-Hispanic White individuals aged 65 years or older diagnosed from 2008 to 2015 with first or second primary OC of any histologic type (International Classification of Diseases for Oncology, 3rd Edition [ICD-O-3] code C569). Data were analyzed from June 2020 to June 2022. Exposures: The SEER-Medicare data set was linked with publicly available data sets to obtain 35 variables representing health care affordability, availability, and accessibility. A composite score was created for each dimension using confirmatory factor analysis followed by a promax (oblique) rotation on multiple component variables. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcomes were consultation with a gynecologic oncologist for OC and receipt of OC-related surgery in the 2 months prior to or 6 months after diagnosis. Results: The cohort included 8987 patients, with a mean (SD) age of 76.8 (7.3) years and 612 Black patients (6.8%), 553 Hispanic patients (6.2%), and 7822 White patients (87.0%). Black patients (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.75; 95% CI, 0.62-0.91) and Hispanic patients (aOR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.67-0.99) were less likely to consult a gynecologic oncologist compared with White patients, and Black patients were less likely to receive surgery after adjusting for demographic and clinical characteristics (aOR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.62-0.94). HCA availability and affordability were each associated with gynecologic oncologist consultation (availability: aOR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.09-1.24; affordability: aOR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.07-1.20), while affordability was associated with receipt of OC surgery (aOR, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.01-1.15). In models mutually adjusted for availability, affordability, and accessibility, Black patients remained less likely to consult a gynecologic oncologist (aOR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.66-0.97) and receive surgery (aOR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.65-0.99). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study of Hispanic, non-Hispanic Black, and non-Hispanic White patients with OC, HCA affordability and availability were significantly associated with receiving surgery and consulting a gynecologic oncologist. However, these dimensions did not fully explain racial and ethnic disparities.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere2254595
Pages (from-to)E2254595
JournalJAMA network open
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 1 2023

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This research was funded by the National Institutes of Health NCI (grant No. R37CA233777).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 American Medical Association. All rights reserved.

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (all)


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