Factors affecting the antibody immunogenicity of vaccines against sars-cov-2: A focused review

Zhangkai Jason Cheng, Mingshan Xue, Peiyan Zheng, Jiali Lyu, Zhiqing Zhan, Haisheng Hu, Yong Zhang, Xiaohua Douglas Zhang, Baoqing Sun

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

14 Scopus citations


Vaccines are a crucial part of the global anti-pandemic effort against COVID-19. The effects of vaccines, as well as their common influencing factors, are the most important issues that we should focus on at this time. To this end, we review statistics on immunogenicity after vaccination, using neutralizing antibodies as the main reference index. Age, infection history, and virus variants are compared, and vaccination program recommendations are made accordingly. Suggestions are made to address concerns raised by the vaccines’ shortened development cycle, as well as the emergence of immunity escape of viral variants. Finally, a brief description and future prospects are provided based on the principle of the ADE effect and previous experience with similar viruses.

Original languageEnglish
Article number869
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Funding: This project was supported by the Guangzhou Institute of Respiratory Health Open Project (Funds provided by China Evergrande Group) (Project No: 2020GIRHHMS04), and the Zhongnanshan Medical Foundation of Guangdong Province (Project No: ZNSA-2021005 and Project No: ZNSA-2020001).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https:// creativecommons.org/licenses/by/ 4.0/).


  • ADE
  • COVID-19
  • Neutralizing antibody
  • Vaccines
  • Variants

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology
  • Pharmacology
  • Drug Discovery
  • Infectious Diseases
  • Pharmacology (medical)


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