Fate of the total score: Dimensionality of the Conformity to Masculine Norms Inventory-46 (CMNI-46)

Joseph H. Hammer, Patrick J. Heath, David L. Vogel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

27 Scopus citations


The Conformity to Masculine Norms Inventory-46 (CMNI-46) measures conformity to hegemonic masculine gender role norms. Research offers conflicting conclusions regarding the CMNI-46's dimensionality, with varying degrees of support for models that consist of 9 correlated factors and second-order or bifactor models that include a general Conformity to Masculine Norms (CMN) factor. To clarify the instrument's dimensionality, the present study used confirmatory factor analysis and ancillary bifactor measures in 2 samples of community (N = 627) and college men (N = 811). Results generally supported the use of the correlated factors solution for conceptualizing and modeling the CMNI-46. In turn, there was a lack of support for using the CMNI-46 to measure a general CMN factor, as the general CMN factor accounted for little variance in both samples. The theoretical implication is that the CMNI-46 can measure conformity to specific masculine norms but not overall conformity.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)645-651
Number of pages7
JournalPsychology of Men and Masculinity
Issue number4
StatePublished - Oct 2018

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2018 American Psychological Association.


  • Bifactor analysis
  • Conformity to masculine norms
  • Scale development
  • Scoring
  • Validity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Gender Studies
  • Social Psychology
  • Applied Psychology
  • Life-span and Life-course Studies


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