Feasibility of using ring-mounted Halcyon Linac for single-isocenter/two-lesion lung stereotactic body radiation therapy

Damodar Pokhrel, Aaron Webster, Richard Mallory, Justin Visak, Mark E. Bernard, Ronald C. McGarry, Mahesh Kudrimoti

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Purpose: To demonstrate the plan quality and delivery efficiency of volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) with the Halcyon Linac ring delivery system (RDS) in the treatment of single-isocenter/two-lesion lung stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Materials/methods: Sixteen previously treated non-coplanar VMAT single-isocenter/two-lesion lung SBRT plans delivered with SBRT-dedicated C-arm TrueBeam Linac were selected. Prescribed dose was 50 Gy to each lesion over five fractions with treatment delivery every other day and AcurosXB algorithm as the final dose calculation algorithm. TrueBeam single-isocenter plans were reoptimized for Halcyon Linac with coplanar geometry. Both TrueBeam and Halcyon plans were normalized for identical combined target coverage and evaluated. Conformity indices (CIs), heterogeneity index (HI), gradient index (GI), gradient distance (GD), and D2cm were compared. The normal lung V5Gy, V10Gy, V20Gy, mean lung dose (MLD), and dose to organs at risk (OAR) were evaluated. Treatment delivery parameters, including beam-on time, were recorded. Results: Halcyon plans were statistically similar to clinically delivered TrueBeam plans. No statistical differences in target conformity, dose heterogeneity, or intermediate-dose spillage were observed (all, p > 0.05). Halcyon plans, on average, demonstrated statistically insignificant reduced maximum dose to most adjacent OAR and normal lung. However, Halcyon yielded statistically significant lower maximal dose to the ribs (p = 0.041) and heart (p = 0.026), dose to 1 cc of ribs (p = 0.035) and dose to 5 cc of esophagus (p = 0.043). Plan complexity slightly increased as seen in the average increase of total monitor units, modulation factor, and beam-on time by 480, 0.48, and 2.78 min, respectively. However, the estimated overall treatment time was reduced by 2.22 min, on average. Mean dose delivery accuracy of clinical TrueBeam plans and the corresponding Halcyon plans was 98.9 ± 0.85% (range: 98.1%–100%) and 98.45 ± 0.99% (range: 97.9%–100%), respectively, demonstrating similar treatment delivery accuracy. Conclusion: SBRT treatment of synchronous lung lesions via single-isocenter VMAT on Halcyon RDS is feasible and dosimetrically equivalent to clinically delivered TrueBeam plans. Halcyon provides excellent plan quality and shorter overall treatment time that may improve patient compliance, reduce intrafraction movement, improve clinic efficiency, and potentially offering lung SBRT treatments for underserved patients on a Halcyon only clinic.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere13555
JournalJournal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was partially supported by the Varian Medical Systems (Palo Alto, CA, USA).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 The Authors. Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics published by Wiley Periodicals, LLC on behalf of The American Association of Physicists in Medicine.


  • Halcyon RDS
  • VMAT
  • co/non-coplanar
  • lung SBRT
  • single-isocenter
  • treatment efficiency

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiation
  • Instrumentation
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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