Finland, a package deal: Disciplinary climate in science classes, science dispositions and science literacy

Larry J. Grabau, Jari Lavonen, Kalle Juuti

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


Finland’s educational prowess, though tempered by recent international assessments, has remained intact. This report focused on lessons that could be learned regarding secondary-level science education from the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2015, sciencefocused assessment. That PISA iteration included not only science literacy but also students’ science dispositions (epistemology, enjoyment, interest, and self-efficacy) and the schools’ science climate measures (disciplinary climate and teaching support). Due to the hierarchical nature of the PISA data, multilevel models were employed in this Finnish study, involving 5582 students from 167 schools. Science dispositions (as outcome measures) were differently associated with teaching support and disciplinary climate (epistemology with neither; enjoyment and interest, with both). Science literacy (as an outcome measure) was associated with all four science dispositions, whether modeled with each science disposition separately or all four simultaneously. Science literacy was also associated with the disciplinary climate in science classes for all tested models. We concluded that, in the Finnish context, science dispositions and the disciplinary climate were predictive of science literacy. Furthermore, we presented evidence from the literature indicating that these conclusions may well extend to other international contexts.

Original languageEnglish
Article number13857
JournalSustainability (Switzerland)
Issue number24
StatePublished - Dec 1 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Both Rianne Janssen (Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, KU Leuven) and Benoît Galand (Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, UC Louvain) supported this project by providing office space at their respective Belgian universities, along with a conducive, collegial research environment during the invited professorships of L.J.G. at their institutions.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


  • Disciplinary climate
  • Enjoyment
  • Epistemology
  • Interest
  • School science climate
  • Science dispositions
  • Science literacy
  • Self-efficacy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Computer Science (miscellaneous)
  • Environmental Science (miscellaneous)
  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Hardware and Architecture
  • Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law
  • Computer Networks and Communications
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment


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