First results on survival from a large Phase 3 clinical trial of an autologous dendritic cell vaccine in newly diagnosed glioblastoma

Linda M. Liau, Keyoumars Ashkan, David D. Tran, Jian L. Campian, John E. Trusheim, Charles S. Cobbs, Jason A. Heth, Michael Salacz, Sarah Taylor, Stacy D. D'Andre, Fabio M. Iwamoto, Edward J. Dropcho, Yaron A. Moshel, Kevin A. Walter, Clement P. Pillainayagam, Robert Aiken, Rekha Chaudhary, Samuel A. Goldlust, Daniela A. Bota, Paul DuicJai Grewal, Heinrich Elinzano, Steven A. Toms, Kevin O. Lillehei, Tom Mikkelsen, Tobias Walpert, Steven R. Abram, Andrew J. Brenner, Steven Brem, Matthew G. Ewend, Simon Khagi, Jana Portnow, Lyndon J. Kim, William G. Loudon, Reid C. Thompson, David E. Avigan, Karen L. Fink, Francois J. Geoffroy, Scott Lindhorst, Jose Lutzky, Andrew E. Sloan, Gabriele Schackert, Dietmar Krex, Hans Jorg Meisel, Julian Wu, Raphael P. Davis, Christopher Duma, Arnold B. Etame, David Mathieu, Santosh Kesari, David Piccioni, Manfred Westphal, David S. Baskin, Pamela Z. New, Michel Lacroix, Sven Axel May, Timothy J. Pluard, Victor Tse, Richard M. Green, John L. Villano, Michael Pearlman, Kevin Petrecca, Michael Schulder, Lynne P. Taylor, Anthony E. Maida, Robert M. Prins, Timothy F. Cloughesy, Paul Mulholland, Marnix L. Bosch

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378 Scopus citations


Background: Standard therapy for glioblastoma includes surgery, radiotherapy, and temozolomide. This Phase 3 trial evaluates the addition of an autologous tumor lysate-pulsed dendritic cell vaccine (DCVax ® -L) to standard therapy for newly diagnosed glioblastoma. Methods: After surgery and chemoradiotherapy, patients were randomized (2:1) to receive temozolomide plus DCVax-L (n = 232) or temozolomide and placebo (n = 99). Following recurrence, all patients were allowed to receive DCVax-L, without unblinding. The primary endpoint was progression free survival (PFS); the secondary endpoint was overall survival (OS). Results: For the intent-to-treat (ITT) population (n = 331), median OS (mOS) was 23.1 months from surgery. Because of the cross-over trial design, nearly 90% of the ITT population received DCVax-L. For patients with methylated MGMT (n = 131), mOS was 34.7 months from surgery, with a 3-year survival of 46.4%. As of this analysis, 223 patients are ≥ 30 months past their surgery date; 67 of these (30.0%) have lived ≥ 30 months and have a Kaplan-Meier (KM)-derived mOS of 46.5 months. 182 patients are ≥ 36 months past surgery; 44 of these (24.2%) have lived ≥ 36 months and have a KM-derived mOS of 88.2 months. A population of extended survivors (n = 100) with mOS of 40.5 months, not explained by known prognostic factors, will be analyzed further. Only 2.1% of ITT patients (n = 7) had a grade 3 or 4 adverse event that was deemed at least possibly related to the vaccine. Overall adverse events with DCVax were comparable to standard therapy alone. Conclusions: Addition of DCVax-L to standard therapy is feasible and safe in glioblastoma patients, and may extend survival.

Original languageEnglish
Article number142
Pages (from-to)1
Number of pages1
JournalJournal of Translational Medicine
Issue number1
StatePublished - May 29 2018

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2018 The Author(s).


  • Dendritic cell
  • Glioblastoma
  • Immunotherapy
  • Vaccine

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology


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