Water is critical for survival and thirst is a powerful way of ensuring that fluid levels remain in balance. Overconsumption, however, can have deleterious effects, therefore optimization requires a need to balance the drive for water with the satiation of that water drive. This review will highlight our current understanding of how thirst is both generated and quenched, with particular focus on the roles of angiotensin II, glucagon like-peptide 1, and estradiol in turning on and off the thirst drive. Our understanding of the roles these bioregulators play has benefited from modern behavioral analyses, which have improved the time resolution of intake measures, allowing for attention to the details of the patterns within a bout of intake. This has led to behavioral interpretation in ways that are helpful in understanding the many controls of water intake and has expanded our understanding beyond the dichotomy that something which increases water intake is simply a “stimulator” while something that decreases water intake is simply a “satiety” factor. Synthesizing the available information, we describe a framework in which thirst is driven directly by perturbations in fluid intake and indirectly modified by several bioregulators. This allows us to better highlight areas that are in need of additional attention to form a more comprehensive understanding of how the system transitions between states of thirst and satiety.

Original languageEnglish
Article number110009
StatePublished - Sep 15 2024

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2024 Elsevier Ltd


  • Angiotensin II
  • Estradiol
  • GLP-1
  • Satiation
  • Thirst

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology
  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience


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