Type 2 diabetes has been shown to occur in response to environmental and genetic influences, among them nutrition; food intake patterns; sedentary lifestyle; body mass index; and exposure to persistent organic pollutants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Nutrition is essential in the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes and has been shown to modulate the toxicity of PCBs. Serum carotenoid concentrations, considered a reliable biomarker of fruit and vegetable intake, are associated with the reduced probability of chronic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Our hypothesis is that fruit and vegetable intake, reflected by serum carotenoid concentrations, is associated with the reduced probability of developing type 2 diabetes in US adults with elevated serum concentrations of PCBs 118, 126, and 153. This cross-sectional study used the Center for Disease Control and Prevention database, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2004, in logistic regression analyses. Overall prevalence of type 2 diabetes was approximately 11.6% depending on the specific PCB. All 3 PCBs were positively associated with the probability of type 2 diabetes. For participants at higher PCB percentiles (eg, 75th and 90th) for PCB 118 and 126, increasing serum carotenoid concentrations were associated with a smaller probability of type 2 diabetes. Fruit and vegetable intake, as reflected by serum carotenoid concentrations, predicted notably reduced probability of dioxin-like PCB-associated risk for type 2 diabetes.
|Number of pages
|Published - Apr 2014
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The authors would like to thank the volunteers and the research staff of the NHANES 2003-2004. This work was supported by grant P42ES007380 from the National Institutes of Environmental Health Sciences, NIH . National Institutes of Environmental Health Sciences/NIH had no role in the design, analysis, or writing of this article. The authors declare that there are no known conflicts of interest associated with this publication.
- Environmental health
- NHANES, type 2 diabetes
- Polychlorinated biphenyls, PCBs
- Serum carotenoids
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
- Nutrition and Dietetics