Functional and structural differences between skinned and intact muscle preparations

Alex Lewalle, Kenneth S. Campbell, Stuart G. Campbell, Gregory N. Milburn, Steven A. Niederer

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Myofilaments and their associated proteins, which together constitute the sarcomeres, provide the molecular-level basis for contractile function in all muscle types. In intact muscle, sarcomere-level contraction is strongly coupled to other cellular subsystems, in particular the sarcolemmal membrane. Skinned muscle preparations (where the sarcolemma has been removed or permeabilized) are an experimental system designed to probe contractile mechanisms independently of the sarcolemma. Over the last few decades, experiments performed using permeabilized preparations have been invaluable for clarifying the understanding of contractile mechanisms in both skeletal and cardiac muscle. Today, the technique is increasingly harnessed for preclinical and/or pharmacological studies that seek to understand how interventions will impact intact muscle contraction. In this context, intrinsic functional and structural differences between skinned and intact muscle pose a major interpretational challenge. This review first surveys measurements that highlight these differences in terms of the sarcomere structure, passive and active tension generation, and calcium dependence. We then highlight the main practical challenges and caveats faced by experimentalists seeking to emulate the physiological conditions of intact muscle. Gaining an awareness of these complexities is essential for putting experiments in due perspective.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere202112990
JournalJournal of General Physiology
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 7 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 Lewalle et al.

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology


Dive into the research topics of 'Functional and structural differences between skinned and intact muscle preparations'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this