G protein-coupled estrogen receptor in colon function, immune regulation and carcinogenesis

Damian Jacenik, Ellen J. Beswick, Wanda M. Krajewska, Eric R. Prossnitz

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

36 Scopus citations


Estrogens play important roles in the development and progression of multiple tumor types. Accumulating evidence points to the significance of estrogen action not only in tumors of hormonally regulated tissues such as the breast, endometrium and ovary, but also in the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). The effects of estrogens in physiological and pathophysiological conditions are mediated by the nuclear estrogen receptors α and β, as well as the membranebound G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER). The roles of GPER in CRC development and progression, however, remain poorly understood. Studies on the functions of GPER in the colon have shown that this estrogen receptor regulates colonic motility as well as immune responses in CRC-associated diseases, such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. GPER is also involved in cell cycle regulation, endoplasmic reticulum stress, proliferation, apoptosis, vascularization, cell migration, and the regulation of fatty acid and estrogen metabolism in CRC cells. Thus, multiple lines of evidence suggest that GPER may play an important role in colorectal carcinogenesis. In this review, we present the current state of knowledge regarding the contribution of GPER to colon function and CRC.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4092-4104
Number of pages13
JournalWorld Journal of Gastroenterology
Issue number30
StatePublished - Aug 14 2019

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Supported by grants from the

Funding Information:
Supported by grants from the National Science Centre, Poland (2017/24/T/NZ5/00045 and 2015/17/N/NZ5/00336 to Damian Jacenik), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH R01 CA163890 and CA194496 to Eric R. Prossnitz; R01 CA207051 to Ellen J. Beswick), the UNM Comprehensive Cancer Center (P30 CA118100), the Autophagy, Inflammation and Metabolism Center of Biomedical Research Excellence (P20 GM121176) and Dialysis Clinic, Inc. (to Eric R. Prossnitz)

Publisher Copyright:
© The Author(s) 2019. Published by Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. All rights reserved.


  • Colonic motility
  • Colorectal cancer
  • G protein-coupled estrogen receptor
  • Inflammatory bowel disease
  • Migration
  • Proliferation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Gastroenterology


Dive into the research topics of 'G protein-coupled estrogen receptor in colon function, immune regulation and carcinogenesis'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this