Gender Differences and the Influence of Body Composition on Land and Pool-Based Assessments of Anaerobic Power and Capacity

Jacquelyn N. Zera, Elizabeth F. Nagle, Emma Connell, Erin Curtin, Wilmina Marget, Anna P. Simonson, Takashi Nagai, John Abt, Scott Lephart

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Consistent differences between males and females have been shown in land-based mea-surements of anaerobic power and capacity. However, these differences have not been investigated for a tethered 30-s maximal swimming test (TST). The purpose of this study is to explore gender differences in land and pool-based assessments of anaerobic power (Fpeak) and capacity (Fmean), as well as the influence of body composition. Thirteen males and fifteen females completed land (Wingate (WAnT)) and pool-based (TST) measures of anaerobic power and capacity previously described in the literature. Additionally, the subjects completed assessments of body composition via air displacement plethysmography. The males produced higher force than the females for Fpeak (p < 0.001) and Fmean (p = 0.008) during the TST. However, linear regression analysis determined that lean mass significantly predicted Fpeak (p = 0.002) and Fmean (p < 0.001) during the TST, while gender was no longer significant (p = 0.694 and p = 0.136, respectively). In conclusion, increases in anaerobic power and capacity (Fpeak and Fmean) may be a function of increased lean mass in males and females, warranting future research on the impact of resistance training programs on force production and swimming performance.

Original languageEnglish
Article number7902
JournalInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Issue number13
StatePublished - Jul 1 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


  • force production
  • gender
  • swimming

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pollution
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis


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