Gender disparities in symptoms of anxiety, depression, and quality of life in defibrillator recipients

Jennifer L. Miller, Ingela Thylén, Debra K. Moser

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations


Background Most patients cope well with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD), but psychological distress and ICD-related concerns have been reported in about 20% of ICD recipients. Many previous studies have not distinguished between genders. Methods In this nationwide study we compared quality of life, anxiety, and depression symptoms between the genders in ICD recipients, and determined predictors of each of these variables in men and women. All adult Swedish ICD recipients were invited by mail to participate and 2,771 patients (66 ± 12 years) completed standardized measures of quality of life, symptoms of anxiety, and depression. Time since implantation ranged from 1 year to 23 years with a mean of 4.7 ± 3.9. Results Women reported worse quality of life (mean index 0.790 vs 0.825) and higher prevalence of anxiety (20.5% vs 14.7%) than did men (P < 0.001 for both comparisons), while there were no differences in symptoms of depression (8.8% vs 8.2%). Conclusions Most ICD recipients report a good quality of life, without emotional distress, but among the minority with distress, women fare worse than men.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)149-159
Number of pages11
JournalPACE - Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 1 2016

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
©2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


  • gender
  • implantable cardioverter defibrillator
  • psychological distress

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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