Generalized Average Method for Time-Invariant Modeling of Inverters

Xiao Liu, Aaron M. Cramer, Fei Pan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

44 Scopus citations


Models of inverters and other converters based on averaging have been widely used in numerous simulation applications. Generalized averaging can be applied to model both average and switching behavior of converters while retaining the faster run times associated with average-value models. Herein, generalized average models for single- and three-phase pulse width modulation inverters are proposed. These models are based on a quasi-Fourier series representation of the switching functions that includes fundamental and switching frequency components as well as sideband components of the switching frequency. The proposed models are demonstrated both in simulation and experimentally and are found to accurately portray both the fundamental and the switching behavior of the inverter. In particular, the use of sideband components allows accurate representation of the variation in switching ripple magnitude that occurs in the steady state. The generalized average models are found to have simulation run times that are significantly faster than those associated with detailed models. Therefore, the proposed generalized average models are suitable for simulation applications in which both accuracy (including the switching behavior) and fast run times are required (e.g., long simulation times, systems with multiple converters, and repeated simulations).

Original languageEnglish
Article number7744588
Pages (from-to)740-751
Number of pages12
JournalIEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 2017

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2004-2012 IEEE.


  • DC-AC power converters
  • mathematical model
  • pulse width modulation inverters

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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