Green-noise digital halftoning

Daniel L. Lau, Gonzalo R. Arce, Neal C. Gallagher

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

110 Scopus citations


In this paper, we introduce the concept of green noise - the midfrequency component of white noise - and its advantages over blue noise for digital halftoning. Unlike blue-noise dither patterns, which are composed exclusively of isolated pixels, green-noise dither patterns are composed of pixel-clusters making them less susceptible to image degradation from nonideal printing artifacts such as dot-gain. Although they are not the only techniques which generate clustered halftones, error-diffusion with output-dependent feedback and variations based on filter weight perturbation are shown to be good generators of green noise, thereby allowing for tunable coarseness. Using statistics developed for blue noise, we closely examine the spectral content of resulting dither patterns. We introduce two spatial-domain statistics for analyzing the spatial arrangement of pixels in aperiodic dither patterns, because greennoise patterns may be anisotropic, and therefore spectral statistics based on radial averages may be inappropriate for the study of these patterns.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2424-2444
Number of pages21
JournalProceedings of the IEEE
Issue number12
StatePublished - 1998


  • Blue-noise dithering
  • Clustered point process
  • Digital halftoning
  • Green-noise dithering
  • Point process
  • Stochastic geometry

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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