Growth Rates of Infants Randomized to Continuous Positive Airway Pressure or Intubation After Extremely Preterm Birth

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Objective: To evaluate the effects of early treatment with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on nutritional intake and in-hospital growth rates of extremely preterm (EPT) infants. Study design: EPT infants (240/7-276/7 weeks of gestation) enrolled in the Surfactant Positive Airway Pressure and Pulse Oximetry Trial (SUPPORT) were included. EPT infants who died before 36 weeks of postmenstrual age (PMA) were excluded. The growth rates from birth to 36 weeks of PMA and follow-up outcomes at 18-22 months corrected age of EPT infants randomized at birth to either early CPAP (intervention group) or early intubation for surfactant administration (control group) were analyzed. Results: Growth data were analyzed for 810 of 1316 infants enrolled in SUPPORT (414 in the intervention group, 396 in the control group). The median gestational age was 26 weeks, and the mean birth weight was 839 g. Baseline characteristics, total nutritional intake, and in-hospital comorbidities were not significantly different between the 2 groups. In a regression model, growth rates between birth and 36 weeks of PMA, as well as growth rates during multiple intervals from birth to day 7, days 7-14, days 14-21, days 21-28, day 28 to 32 weeks PMA, and 32-36 weeks PMA did not differ between treatment groups. Independent of treatment group, higher growth rates from day 21 to day 28 were associated with a lower risk of having a Bayley-III cognitive score <85 at 18-22 months corrected age (P = .002). Conclusions: EPT infants randomized to early CPAP did not have higher in-hospital growth rates than infants randomized to early intubation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)148-153.e3
JournalJournal of Pediatrics
StatePublished - Oct 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The National Institutes of Health (NIH), the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), and the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) provided grant support for the Neonatal Research Network's SUPPORT Trial through cooperative agreements (U10 HD21373, UG1 HD21364, UG1 HD21385, UG1 HD27851, UG1 HD27853, UG1 HD27856, UG1 HD27880, UG1 HD27904, UG1 HD34216, UG1 HD36790, UG1 HD40492, UG1 HD40689, UG1 HD53089, UG1 HD53109, UG1 HD68244, UG1 HD68270, UG1 HD68278, UG1 HD68263, UG1 HD68284; UG1 HD87226, and UG1 HD87229). A.S. received support from an NIH K23 grant (HD102554). The comments and views of the authors do not necessarily represent the views of the NICHD, NHLBI, or NIH. A.S. received consulting fees from the Lockwood Group for participation in advisory board meetings and filed a patent application for an instrumented bottle. W.C. serves on the board of directors of MEDNAX Services, Inc. The other authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 Elsevier Inc.

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health


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