Guided Growth for Varus Deformity Following Early Tibial Osteotomy in Infantile Tibia Vara - A Multi-Center Study

Janet L. Walker, Allison C. Scott, Lindsay P. Stephenson, David E. Westberry, Joel A. Lerman, Jeffery D. Ackman, Sarah B. Nossov, Corinna C. Franklin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


BACKGROUND : Despite early osteotomy, many patients with infantile tibia vara (ITV) have persistent or recurrent varus deformity and disordered growth at the medial proximal tibial physis. Our hypothesis was that lateral tibial tension band plating (LTTBP) could guide correction. Methods: A retrospective review at 6 centers of 15 patients (16 extremities) was performed of LTTBP for varus deformity following early osteotomy in ITV, diagnosed≤4years of age. Correction of deformity parameters on digital standing anteroposterior lower extremity radiographs determined outcome. Results: Twenty-two LTTBP procedures were performed at mean age of 7.5 years, including 4 revisions for implant failure and 2 reimplantations for recurrence. Single event LLTBP, improved the medial proximal tibial angle with a mean change of 13.4 degrees (0.39 degrees/month). Eleven limbs had preoperative mechanical lateral distal femoral angle (mLDFA)>90 degrees. While n degree femoral procedures were performed, at study end, 11 femurs had mechanical lateral distal femoral angle≤90°. Pretreatment, 13 extremities had mechanical axis zone (MAZone) III varus (81%) and 3 had MAZone II varus (19%). LTTBP's were able to initially correct 13 limbs to MAZone I or valgus but 4 limbs rebounded to MAZone II varus after implant removal. Final limb alignment, after all surgeries and rebound, included 9 in MAZone I, 5 in MAZone II varus and 2 in MAZone III varus. Average follow-up was 3.0 years at mean 10.7 years of age. Fifteen procedures resulted in improvement in MAZone and 7 had no change. On average, those that improved were younger (7.3 vs. 8.0 y), weighed less (45.5 kg with body mass index 26.5 kg/m2 vs. 67.8 kg and body mass index 35.7 kg/m2), had lower mechanical axis deviation (37.1 mm vs. 43.9 mm), lower medial physeal slope (61.7 vs. 68.7 degrees) and had a higher percentage of open triradiate phases (87 vs. 57%). Conclusions: LTTBP for residual varus, after initial osteotomy in ITV, resulted in 81% of limbs initially achieving MAZone I or valgus with implant failure revisions and femoral remodeling. Rebound after implant removal reduced the corrected rate to 56%. Ninety-four percent avoided osteotomy during the study period. Level of Evidence: IV.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)488-495
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Pediatric Orthopaedics
Issue number9
StatePublished - Oct 1 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.


  • Blount disease
  • Children
  • Genu varum
  • Hemiepiphyseodesis
  • Tension band plating

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine


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