Harmonization of the English and Spanish Versions of the NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery Crystallized and Fluid Composite Scores

Justin E. Karr, Travis M. Scott, Maral Aghvinian, Monica Rivera Mindt

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Objective: The National Institutes of Health Toolbox Cognition Battery (NIHTB-CB) has both English and Spanish-language versions producing crystallized and fluid cognition composite scores. This study examined measurement invariance between languages of administration. If established, measurement invariance would indicate that the composite scores measure the same construct across languages and provide scores that can be meaningfully compared and harmonized in future analyses. Method: Participants from the NIHTB-CB normative sample included adults tested in English (n = 1,038; M = 49.1 years old, SD = 18.6) or Spanish (n = 408; M = 44.1 years old, SD = 16.7). Participants completed seven NIHTB-CB tests: Two measuring crystallized cognition and five measuring fluid cognition. Each test score was converted to an age-adjusted standard score or demographic-adjusted T score. A two-factor model (i.e., crystallized cognition and fluid cognition factors) was evaluated using confirmatory factor analysis. Measurement invariance was evaluated by fitting the two-factor model for each language of administration and constraining model parameters to be equivalent across languages, testing configural, weak, strong, and strict models. Results: For age-adjusted and demographic-adjusted scores, the two-factor model fit adequately well, and each factor had adequate reliability among English and Spanish-speaking participants. Strict invariance was established across languages of administration for both age-adjusted and demographic-adjusted scores. Conclusions: These findings support the harmonization of the Englishand Spanish-language NIHTB-CB crystallized and fluid composite scores, indicating that the composite scores measure the same constructs on the same scale. The results support future studies merging data from participants evaluated in both languages.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)258-267
Number of pages10
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jun 2 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 American Psychological Association


  • cognition
  • cross-cultural comparison
  • factor analysis
  • neuropsychological tests
  • psychometrics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuropsychology and Physiological Psychology


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