Heart Rate Variability and Hemodynamic Alterations in Canines with Normal Cardiac Function during Exposure to Pressure Support, Continuous Positive Airway Pressure, and a Combination of Pressure Support and Continuous Positive Airway Pressure

Susan K. Frazier, Debra K. Moser, Kathleen S. Stone

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

32 Scopus citations

Abstract

Variations in intrathoracic pressure generated by different ventilator weaning modes may significantly affect intrathoracic hemodynamics and cardiovascular stability. Although several investigators have attributed cardiovascular alterations during ventilator weaning to augmented sympathetic tone, there is limited investigation of changes in autonomic tone during ventilator weaning. Heart rate variability (HRV), the analysis of beat-to-beat changes in heart rate, is a noninvasive indicator of autonomic tone that might be useful in the identification of patients who are at risk for weaning difficulty due to underlying cardiac dysfunction. The authors describe HRV and hemodynamics in response to 3 ventilatory conditions: pressure support (PS) 10 cmH2O, continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) 10 cmH2O, and a combination of PS 10 cmH2O and CPAP 10 cmH2O (PS+CPAP) in a group of canines with normal ventricular function. Six canines were studied in the laboratory. Continuous 3-lead electrocardiographic data were collected during baseline (controlled mechanical ventilation) and following transition to each of the ventilatory conditions (PS, CPAP, PS+CPAP) for analysis of HRV. HRV was evaluated using power spectral analysis to define the power under the curve in a very low frequency range (0.0033 to < 0.04 Hz, sympathetic tone), a low frequency range (0.04 to < 0.15 Hz, primarily sympathetic tone), and a high frequency range (0.15 to < 0.40 Hz, parasympathetic tone). A thermodilution pulmonary artery catheter measured cardiac output and right ventricular end-diastolic volume to describe global hemodynamics. There were significant increases in very low frequency power (sympathetic tone) with a concomitant significant reduction in high-frequency power (parasympathetic tone) with exposure to PS+CPAP. These alterations in HRV were associated with significantly increased heart rate and reduced right ventricular end-diastolic volume. Although there was a small but significant increase in cardiac output with exposure to PS, HRV was unchanged. These data indicate that there was a relative shift in autonomic balance to increased sympathetic and decreased parasympathetic tone with exposure to PS+CPAP. The increase in intrathoracic pressure reduced right ventricular end-diastolic volume (preload). This hemodynamic alteration generated a change in autonomic tone, so that cardiac output could be maintained. Individuals with autonomic and/or cardiovascular dysfunction may not be capable of this type of response and may fail to successfully wean from mechanical ventilation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)167-174
Number of pages8
JournalBiological Research for Nursing
Volume2
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - 2001

Keywords

  • cardiac output
  • continuous positive airway pressure
  • Heart rate variability
  • mechanical ventilation
  • power spectral analysis
  • pressure support
  • right ventricular end-diastolic volume
  • ventilator weaning

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Research and Theory

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