Hepatic glutamate uptake and conversion to glutamine is critical for whole-body N metabolism, but how this process is regulated during growth is poorly described. The hepatic glutamate uptake activities, protein content of system XAG- transporters (EAAC1, GLT-1) and regulatory proteins (GTRAP3-18, ARL6IP1), glutamine synthetase (GS) activity and content, and glutathione (GSH) content, were compared in liver tissue of weaned Angus steers randomly assigned (n = 8) to predominantly lean (growing) or predominantly lipid (finished) growth regimens. Steers were fed a cotton seed hull-based diet to achieve final body weights of 301 or 576 kg, respectively, at a constant rate of growth. Liver tissue was collected at slaughter and hepatic membranes fractionated. Total (75%), Na+-dependent (90%), system XAG--dependent (abolished) glutamate uptake activity, and EAAC1 content (36%) in canalicular membrane-enriched vesicles decreased as steers developed from growing (n = 6) to finished (n = 4) stages, whereas Na+-independent uptake did not change. In basolateral membrane-enriched vesicles, total (60%), Na+-dependent (60%), and Na+-independent (56%) activities decreased, whereas neither system XAG--dependent uptake nor protein content changed. EAAC1 protein content in liver homogenates (n = 8) decreased in finished vs. growing steers, whereas GTRAP3-18 and ARL6IP1 content increased and GLT-1 content did not change. Concomitantly, hepatic GS activity decreased (32%) as steers fattened, whereas GS and GSH contents did not differ. We conclude that hepatic glutamate uptake and GS synthesis capacities are reduced in livers of finished versus growing beef steers, and that hepatic system XAG- transporter activity/EAAC1 content is inversely proportional to GTRAP3-18 content.
|Number of pages||13|
|State||Published - May 1 2018|
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Funding This work is supported by the National Institute of Food and Agriculture, US Department of Agriculture, AFRI Project No. 11303353.
© 2018, The Author(s).
- Glutamate transport
- Glutamine synthetase
- Growth phase
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Clinical Biochemistry
- Organic Chemistry