High-stake reforms and urban education

Julian Vasquez Heilig, Muhammad Khalifa, Linda C. Tillman

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review

8 Scopus citations


The United States has exhibited long-standing achievement gaps between Whites and Latina/os, African Americans, and Native Americans in urban schools. These gaps are not coincidence. Whether it was Plessyv. Ferguson 1 (1896) or Arizona’s House Bill 2281 (2010), 2 a long history of legislative, executive, and judicial enactments have relegated many students of color to the periphery of society. Despite an interest in educating students of color spurred by the Civil Rights Movement, they still constitute a large sector of urban students vulnerable to poor school performance, as many of these youth continue to receive uneven instruction (Vasquez Heilig, Cole, & Springel, 2011). As a result, a signifi cant number of urban students of color exhibit low academic achievement, poor performance on standardized exams, low graduation rates, and high dropout rates (Vasquez Heilig & Darling-Hammond, 2008).

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationHandbook of Urban Education
Number of pages15
ISBN (Electronic)9781136206016
StatePublished - Jan 1 2013

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Social Sciences (all)


Dive into the research topics of 'High-stake reforms and urban education'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this