When considering the optimal molecular packing to realize charge multiplication in organic photovoltaic materials, subtle changes in intermolecular charge transfer (CT) coupling can strongly modulate singlet fission. To understand why certain packing arrangements are more conducive to charge multiplication by triplet pair (TT) formation, we measure the diffraction-limited transient absorption (TA) response from four single-crystal functionalized derivatives of fluorinated anthradithiophene: diF R-ADT (R = TES, TSBS, TDMS, TBDMS). diF TES-ADT and diF TDMS-ADT both exhibit 2D brickwork packing structures, diF TSBS-ADT adopts a 1D sandwich-herringbone packing structure, and diF TBDMS-ADT exhibits a 1D twisted-columnar packing structure. When brickwork or twisted-columnar single crystals are resonantly probed parallel to their charge transfer (CT)-axis projections, the TA signal is dominated by a rising component on the picosecond time scale (rate kTT), attributed to TT state population. When probed orthogonal to the CT-axis, we instead recover the falling TA kinetics of singlet state depletion at rate kA. The rising to falling rate ratio estimates the TT formation efficiency, ϵTT= kTT/kArelative to exciton self-trapping. ϵTTranged from near 100% in diF TES-ADT to 84% in diF TDMS-ADT. Interestingly, diF TSBS-ADT crystals only manifest falling kinetics of CT-mediated self-trapping and singlet state depletion. Singlet fission is prohibitive in diF TSBS-ADT crystals owing to its lower symmetry sandwich-herringbone packing that leads to S1to CT-state energy separation that is ∼3× larger than in other packings. Collectively, these results highlight optimal packing configurations that either enhance or completely suppress CT-mediated TT formation.
|Number of pages||13|
|Journal||Journal of Physical Chemistry C|
|State||Published - Mar 10 2022|
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was in part supported by the National Science Foundation (Grant Nos. DMR-1808258, DMR-1920368, and DMREF-1627428). We gratefully acknowledge Mirek Brandt for developing the hyperspectral photoluminescence single-crystal excitation spectra measurements.
© 2022 American Chemical Society. All rights reserved.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
- Energy (all)
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
- Surfaces, Coatings and Films