Higher-order cumulants and correlation functions of proton multiplicity distributions in sNN =3 GeV Au+Au collisions at the RHIC STAR experiment

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3 Scopus citations


We report a measurement of cumulants and correlation functions of event-by-event proton multiplicity distributions from fixed-target Au+Au collisions at sNN = 3 GeV measured by the STAR experiment. Protons are identified within the rapidity (y) and transverse momentum (pT) region -0.9<y<0 and 0.4<pT<2.0 GeV/c in the center-of-mass frame. A systematic analysis of the proton cumulants and correlation functions up to sixth order as well as the corresponding ratios as a function of the collision centrality, pT, and y are presented. The effect of pileup and initial volume fluctuations on these observables and the respective corrections are discussed in detail. The results are compared to calculations from the hadronic transport UrQMD model as well as a hydrodynamic model. In the most central 5% collisions, the value of proton cumulant ratio C4/C2 is negative, drastically different from the values observed in Au+Au collisions at higher energies. Compared to model calculations including lattice QCD, a hadronic transport model, and a hydrodynamic model, the strong suppression in the ratio of C4/C2 at 3 GeV Au+Au collisions indicates an energy regime dominated by hadronic interactions.

Original languageEnglish
Article number024908
JournalPhysical Review C
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 2023

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
We thank the RHIC Operations Group and RCF at BNL, the NERSC Center at LBNL, and the Open Science Grid consortium for providing resources and support. This work was supported in part by the Office of Nuclear Physics within the U.S. DOE Office of Science, the U.S. National Science Foundation, National Natural Science Foundation of China, Chinese Academy of Science, the Ministry of Science and Technology of China and the Chinese Ministry of Education, the Higher Education Sprout Project by Ministry of Education at NCKU, the National Research Foundation of Korea, Czech Science Foundation and Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic, Hungarian National Research, Development and Innovation Office, New National Excellency Programme of the Hungarian Ministry of Human Capacities, Department of Atomic Energy and Department of Science and Technology of the Government of India, the National Science Centre and WUT ID-UB of Poland, the Ministry of Science, Education and Sports of the Republic of Croatia, German Bundesministerium für Bildung, Wissenschaft, Forschung and Technologie (BMBF), Helmholtz Association, Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology (MEXT) and Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 American Physical Society.

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nuclear and High Energy Physics


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