Historical evolution of surgical approaches to the face—part I: head and upper face

Jose S. Sifuentes-Cervantes, Francisco Carrillo-Morales, Bhargav Venkata Chivukula, Jaime Castro-Núñez, Larry L. Cunningham, Joseph E. Van Sickels

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Surgical approaches to the head and maxillofacial area have been described and modified by many authors throughout history. It was, however, during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries due in large part to improvements in the delivery of anesthesia and antibiotic therapy when most of the techniques were described. Currently, a myriad of surgical techniques are employed to access the maxillofacial complex with advantages and disadvantages for each one. Although each approach is described in many text and articles, few describe the circumstances or the historical context under which they were designed. In a series of three articles, a historical perspective will be provided on the evolution of some of the most commonly employed today. Descriptions will enumerate the advantages and disadvantages of as well as later modifications. The purpose of the present article (1/3) is to review the approaches to the head and upper face.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)9-20
Number of pages12
JournalOral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Issue number1
StatePublished - Mar 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature.


  • History
  • Maxillofacial trauma
  • Oral and maxillofacial surgery
  • Oral pathology

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Oral Surgery
  • Otorhinolaryngology


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