Historical evolution of surgical approaches to the face—part II: midface

Jose S. Sifuentes-Cervantes, Francisco Carrillo-Morales, Jaime Castro-Núñez, Bhargav Venkata Chivukula, Larry L. Cunningham, Joseph E. Van Sickels

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Surgical approaches to the head and maxillofacial area have been described and modified by multiple authors throughout history. It was during nineteenth and twentieth century when most of the techniques evolved due to advances in anesthesia and antibiotic therapy. Currently, a myriad of surgical approaches are employed to gain access to the maxillofacial complex, with each of them having advantages and disadvantages. Although the approaches are presented in numerous textbooks and articles, few texts describe the circumstances or historical context under which they were developed. In a series of three articles, we will provide a historical perspective of the evolution of the most common surgical approaches to the head and face employed today. Descriptions contain advantages and disadvantages of the approaches and modifications are also provided. The purpose of the present article (2/3) is to review the approaches to the midface.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)177-184
Number of pages8
JournalOral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jun 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature.


  • History
  • Maxillofacial trauma
  • Oral and maxillofacial surgery
  • Oral pathology

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Oral Surgery
  • Otorhinolaryngology


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