Historical evolution of surgical approaches to the face—part III: lower face

Jose S. Sifuentes-Cervantes, Francisco Carrillo-Morales, Jaime Castro-Núñez, Bhargav Venkata Chivukula, Larry L. Cunningham, Joseph E. Van Sickels

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Surgical approaches to the head and maxillofacial area have been described and modified by many authors throughout history. It was, however, during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries when most of the techniques were described, mainly thanks to the advent of anesthesia and antibiotic therapy. Currently, a myriad of surgical techniques are employed to access the maxillofacial complex, with each of them having advantages and disadvantages. Although the approaches are the subject of textbooks and articles, most do not describe the circumstances or the historical context under which they were designed. In a series of three articles, we will provide a historical perspective of the most common surgical approaches to the head and face employed today. Descriptions contain advantages and disadvantages and modifications are provided. The purpose of the present article (3/3) is to review the approaches to the lower face.

Original languageEnglish
JournalOral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Issue number1
StatePublished - Mar 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature.


  • History
  • Maxillofacial trauma
  • Oral and maxillofacial surgery
  • Oral pathology

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Oral Surgery
  • Otorhinolaryngology


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