HIV-1 Tat-coated nanoparticles result in enhanced humoral immune responses and neutralizing antibodies compared to alum adjuvant

Jigna Patel, David Galey, Julia Jones, Phillip Ray, Jerold G. Woodward, Avi Nath, Russell J. Mumper

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

27 Scopus citations


HIV-1 Tat has been identified as an attractive target for vaccine development and is currently under investigation in clinical trials as both a therapeutic and preventative vaccine for HIV-1. It is well known that protein based vaccines produce poor immune responses by themselves and therefore require adjuvants to enhance immune responses. We have previously reported on the use of anionic nanoparticles (NPs) for enhancing cellular and humoral immune responses to Tat (1-72). The purpose of this study was to further evaluate the immune response of HIV-1 Tat (1-72) coated on anionic nanoparticles compared to alum using various doses of Tat (1-72). Nanoparticles were effective at generating comparable antibody titers at both 1 and 5 μg doses of Tat (1-72), whereas the antibody titers significantly decreased at the lower dose of Tat (1-72) using alum. Anti-sera from Tat (1-72) immunized mice reacted greatest to the N-terminal and basic regions of Tat, with the NP groups showing stronger reactivity to these regions compared to alum. Moreover, the anti-sera from all Tat (1-72) immunized groups contained Tat-neutralizing antibodies and were able to significantly inhibit Tat-mediated long terminal repeat (LTR) transactivation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3564-3573
Number of pages10
Issue number17
StatePublished - Apr 24 2006

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This research was funded by NIH-NIAID AI051147 and AI058842. J. Patel was supported, in part, by a pre-doctoral fellowship received from the American Foundation for Pharmaceutical Education and the 2005 Dissertation Year Fellowship received from the University of Kentucky Graduate School.


  • Adjuvants
  • HIV-1 Tat
  • LTR-transactivation
  • Nanoparticles
  • Protein
  • Vaccine

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Medicine
  • General Immunology and Microbiology
  • General Veterinary
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Infectious Diseases


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