Hoof Impact and Foot-Off Accelerations in Galloping Thoroughbred Racehorses Trialling Eight Shoe–Surface Combinations

Kate Horan, James Coburn, Kieran Kourdache, Peter Day, Henry Carnall, Liam Brinkley, Dan Harborne, Lucy Hammond, Mick Peterson, Sean Millard, Thilo Pfau

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


The athletic performance and safety of racehorses is influenced by hoof–surface interactions. This intervention study assessed the effect of eight horseshoe–surface combinations on hoof acceleration patterns at impact and foot-off in 13 galloping Thoroughbred racehorses retired from racing. Aluminium, barefoot, GluShu (aluminium–rubber composite) and steel shoeing conditions were trialled on turf and artificial (Martin Collins Activ-Track) surfaces. Shod conditions were applied across all four hooves. Tri-axial accelerometers (SlamStickX, range ±500 g, sampling rate 5000 Hz) were attached to the dorsal hoof wall (x: medio-lateral, medial = positive; y: along dorsal hoof wall, proximal = positive; and z: perpendicular to hoof wall, dorsal = positive). Linear mixed models assessed whether surface, shoeing condition or stride time influenced maximum (most positive) or minimum (most negative) accelerations in x, y and z directions, using ≥40,691 strides (significance at p < 0.05). Day and horse–rider pair were included as random factors, and stride time was included as a covariate. Collective mean accelerations across x, y and z axes were 22–98 g at impact and 17–89 g at foot-off. The mean stride time was 0.48 ± 0.07 s (mean ±2 SD). Impact accelerations were larger on turf in all directions for forelimbs and hindlimbs (p ≤ 0.015), with the exception of the forelimb z-minimum, and in absolute terms, maximum values were typically double the minimum values. The surface type affected all foot-off accelerations (p ≤ 0.022), with the exception of the hindlimb x-maximum; for example, there was an average increase of 17% in z-maximum across limbs on the artificial track. The shoeing condition influenced all impact and foot-off accelerations in the forelimb and hindlimb datasets (p ≤ 0.024), with the exception of the hindlimb impact y-maximum. Barefoot hooves generally experienced the lowest accelerations. The stride time affected all impact and foot-off accelerations (p < 0.001). Identifying factors influencing hoof vibrations upon landing and hoof motion during propulsion bears implication for injury risk and racing outcomes.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2161
Issue number17
StatePublished - Sep 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 by the authors.


  • acceleration
  • gallop
  • hoof
  • racehorse
  • shoeing
  • stride time
  • surface

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Animal Science and Zoology
  • General Veterinary


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