Host range expansion may provide enemy free space for the highly invasive emerald ash borer

David G. Olson, Lynne K. Rieske

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations

Abstract

Emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is an aggressive invader from Asia that has killed millions of trees in North America, causing substantial ecosystem effects and economic losses. All North American ash, Fraxinus spp., are thought to be susceptible, but recently emerald ash borer has been documented developing in a novel host, white fringetree, Chionanthus virginicus. We evaluated larval performance in two common ash species and white fringetree by infesting bolts with emerald ash borer eggs. In addition we evaluated cambial nitrogen, carbon, carbon:nitrogen, stem density, and response to artificial wounding, to determine which host plant characteristics most influence larval development. We also conducted choice and no choice assays using the classical biological control agent, Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), to assess its ability to locate larval emerald ash borer in the different host plants. We found significantly lower survival rates of emerald ash borer larvae in white fringetree compared to white ash, F. americana. Larval phloem consumption and larval growth were lower in fringetree than in either white or blue ash, F. quadrangulata. Carbon content and density were greater in fringetree than in either ash species. Response to wounding, measured by callus tissue formation, was greatest in white ash. In choice assays, T. planipennisi only parasitized emerald ash borer larvae in ash bolts, and in no-choice tests failed to parasitize larvae in fringetree. Our findings corroborate studies showing that fringetree is a suitable host for emerald ash borer larvae. Failure of T. planipennisi to parasitize larvae within fringetree has implications for the efficacy of this classical biological control agent in regulating emerald ash borer populations. Coupled with the use of white fringetree as a reservoir host, the enemy free space provided to emerald ash borer through use of this alternate host may have significant repercussions for emerald ash borer invasion dynamics.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)625-635
Number of pages11
JournalBiological Invasions
Volume21
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 15 2019

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Parasitoids were kindly provided by the USDA APHIS PPQ Emerald Ash Borer Program, Brighton, MI. Eric Roemmele provided statistical support, and Kenneth Haynes and Daniel Potter provided feedback on an early version of the manuscript. We thank two anonymous reviewers who provided valuable input for improving the manuscript. This is publication number 18-08-37 of the Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station paper and is published with the approval of the Director. This work is supported by the Kentucky Division of Forestry and the USDA Forest Service through a Landscape Scale Restoration Grant, and by McIntire Stennis Funds under 2351197000.

Funding Information:
The authors thank Ignazio Graziosi, Michelle Guo, Katherine Hagan, Jerry Hart, Mitch Hughes, Beth Kyre, Hannah Moore, Jim Nelson, Chad Niman, Felipe Pampolini, Samuel Rivers, for assistance with field and laboratory work. Lee Crawfort and Lexington-Fayette Urban County Government provided access to sampling sites. Parasitoids were kindly provided by the USDA APHIS PPQ Emerald Ash Borer Program, Brighton, MI. Eric Roemmele provided statistical support, and Kenneth Haynes and Daniel Potter provided feedback on an early version of the manuscript. We thank two anonymous reviewers who provided valuable input for improving the manuscript. This is publication number 18-08-37 of the Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station paper and is published with the approval of the Director. This work is supported by the Kentucky Division of Forestry and the USDA Forest Service through a Landscape Scale Restoration Grant, and by McIntire Stennis Funds under 2351197000.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2018, The Author(s).

Keywords

  • Agrilus planipennis
  • Biological control
  • Chionanthus
  • Enemy free space
  • Host shift
  • Tetrastichus

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
  • Ecology

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