How all stars works: An examination of program effects on mediating variables

Ralph B. McNeal, William B. Hansen, Nancy Grant Harrington, Steven M. Giles

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

88 Scopus citations


Prevention research continues to focus on school-based substance use programs aimed at adolescents. These programs are designed to reduce substance use and risk behavior by targeting key mediators, such as normative beliefs, which in turn reduce substance use. All Stars is a newly developed program that was recently evaluated in a randomized field trial in 14 middle schools in Lexington and Louisville, Kentucky. The authors examined targeted and nontargeted variables as possible mediators of program effectiveness. Findings indicate that All Stars achieved reductions in substance use and postponed sexual activity when teachers were successful at altering targeted mediators: normative beliefs, lifestyle incongruence, and manifest commitment to not use drugs. The program was not successful when it was delivered by specialists. At least in part, this failure is attributable to specialists' inability to change mediators as intended by the program.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)165-178
Number of pages14
JournalHealth Education and Behavior
Issue number2
StatePublished - Apr 2004


  • Adolescent substance use
  • All stars
  • Prevention

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


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