How Do LGBTQ+ Parents Raise Well-Adjusted, Resilient, and Thriving Children?

Rachel H. Farr, Samantha L. Tornello, Sharon S. Rostosky

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations


Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ+) parents raise well-adjusted children. How do they accomplish this feat despite stigma and discrimination? Psychological scholarship (often based in the United States and other Westernized countries) has typically used atheoretical, deficit models based on biased assumptions to compare the outcomes of children of LGBTQ+ parents and children of cisgender heterosexual parents. However, research on processes and socialization within LGBTQ+-parent families suggests that LGBTQ+ parents demonstrate flexibility, creativity, and intentionality, which are associated with children’s positive outcomes and resilience. We recommend moving from deficits-based, comparative approaches to intersectional, queer-theory-based, and strengths-based alternatives. We argue that this conceptual shift will generate new questions and thus new knowledge about the unique strengths of LGBTQ+ parenting that positively influence children’s development. Such findings may provide insights about parenting practices and ways to support effective parenting that could benefit all children and families.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)526-535
Number of pages10
JournalCurrent Directions in Psychological Science
Issue number6
StatePublished - Dec 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© The Author(s) 2022.


  • LGBTQ+ parents and children
  • family socialization
  • intersectionality
  • queer theory
  • resilience

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Psychology


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