HyBR: A Hybrid Bio-inspired Bee swarm Routing protocol for safety applications in Vehicular Ad hoc NETworks (VANETs)

Salim Bitam, Abdelhamid Mellouk, Sherali Zeadally

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

81 Scopus citations


Increasing interests in Vehicular Ad hoc NETworks (VANETs) over the last decade have led to huge investments in technologies and research to improve road safety by providing timely and accurate information to drivers and authorities. To achieve the timely dissemination of messages, various routing protocols for VANETs have been recently proposed. We present a Hybrid Bee swarm Routing (HyBR) protocol for VANETs. HyBR is based on the continuous learning paradigm in order to take into account the dynamic environmental changes in real-time which constitute a key property of VANETs. The protocol combines the features of topology routing with those of geographic routing. HyBR is a unicast and a multipath routing protocol (aimed at both urban and rural scenarios) which guarantees road safety services by transmitting packets with minimum delays and high packet delivery. To demonstrate the effectiveness and the performance of HyBR, we conducted a performance evaluation based on several metrics such as end-to-end delay, packet delivery ratio, and normalized overhead load. We obtained better performance results with HyBR in contrast to results obtained from traditional routing algorithms such as Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV) topology-based routing protocol and Greedy Perimeter Stateless Routing (GPSR) geography-based protocol.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)953-967
Number of pages15
JournalJournal of Systems Architecture
Issue number10 PART B
StatePublished - 2013

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Salim Bitam received the State Engineer degree in computer science from Mentouri University, Constantine, Algeria, in 1999 and the Magister and Doctorate in science degrees in computer science from Mohamed Khider University, Biskra, Algeria, in 2002 and 2011, respectively. In December 2002, he has been an assistant professor and since January 2011 he is an associate professor in computer science department and a senior member of Laboratory of Expert Systems, Imagery and their Applications in Engineering (LESIA) in University of Biskra. His main research interests are cloud computing, mobile ad hoc networks, vehicular ad hoc networks, wireless sensor networks and bio-inspired methods for optimization. Dr. Salim Bitam has to his credit more than 25 publications in journals, books and conferences, in which he has received two best paper awards. He has served as an editorial member and a reviewer of several journals such as Elsevier and Springer and on the technical program committees of several international conferences (IEEE Globecom 2012, WorldCIST 2013, etc.). He has participated at the Join-MED events in Egypt, Morocco and Tunisia sponsored by the European Union under grant agreement no. 231550.


  • Bee swarm
  • Bio-inspired computing
  • Multipath routing
  • Performance
  • Road safety service
  • Vehicular Ad hoc Network

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Software
  • Hardware and Architecture


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