Hybrid Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Using Avalon Elite Double Lumen Cannula Ensures Adequate Heart/Brain Oxygen Supply

Ju Zhao, Dongfang Wang, Cherry Ballard-Croft, Jingkun Wang, Po Lin Hsu, Matthew Bacchetta, Joseph B. Zwischenberger

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


Background Differential hypoxia exists in peripheral venoarterial (VA) extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) patients with compromised lungs, causing hypoxic damage to heart or brain. We proposed an Avalon Elite (Maquet, Rastatt, Germany) double lumen cannula-based hybrid ECMO to add a venovenous (VV) blood flow into the pulmonary circulation onto the existing VA ECMO circuit to increase oxygen saturation in the left ventricle and ascending aorta, mitigating heart/brain hypoxia. Methods This hybrid ECMO circuit consists of two cannulas (27F Avalon Elite double lumen cannula from the inferior vena cava to the superior vena cava to right atrium to inferior vena cava; 17F infusion cannula in femoral artery), a blood pump, and a gas exchanger. This hybrid ECMO circuit was tested in 7 adult sheep with simulated lung failure. Total ECMO blood flow (2.8 to 3.3 L/min) was split between VV and VA blood flow. The VV blood flow was adjusted from 0% to 50% of total ECMO flow by approximately 10% increments. Results In VA ECMO, simulated respiratory failure resulted in differential hypoxia (low oxygen level in left ventricle and high oxygen level in abdominal aorta). In hybrid ECMO, adding VV blood flow (10% to 50% of total ECMO flow) to the VA ECMO circuit progressively increased left ventricle blood oxygen saturation from 70% ± 8% at zero VV blood flow (pure VA ECMO) to 82% ± 6% at 300 mL/min VV blood flow, and 96% ± 6% at 1,700 mL/min VV blood flow. Conclusions The Avalon Elite double-lumen cannula-based hybrid ECMO circuit is a simple circuit that provides efficient performance and flexible VA/VV blood distribution. In this hybrid ECMO circuit, incremental VV blood flow (10% to 50%) progressively increased left ventricular blood oxygen level, ensuring adequate heart and brain oxygen supply.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)847-853
Number of pages7
JournalAnnals of Thoracic Surgery
Issue number3
StatePublished - Sep 2017

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2017 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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