Hyperspectral Imaging and Machine Learning as a Nondestructive Method for Proso Millet Seed Detection and Classification

Nader Ekramirad, Lauren Doyle, Julia Loeb, Dipak Santra, Akinbode A. Adedeji

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Millet is a small-seeded cereal crop with big potential. There are many different cultivars of proso millet (Panicum miliaceum L.) with different characteristics, bringing forth the issue of sorting which are important for growers, processors, and consumers. Current methods of grain cultivar detection and classification are subjective, destructive, and time-consuming. Therefore, there is a need to develop nondestructive methods for sorting the cultivars of proso millet. In this study, the feasibility of using near-infrared (NIR) hyperspectral imaging (900–1700 nm) to discriminate between different cultivars of proso millet seeds was evaluated. A total of 5000 proso millet seeds were randomly obtained and investigated from the ten most popular cultivars in the United States, namely Cerise, Cope, Earlybird, Huntsman, Minco, Plateau, Rise, Snowbird, Sunrise, and Sunup. To reduce the large dimensionality of the hyperspectral imaging, principal component analysis (PCA) was applied, and the first two principal components were used as spectral features for building the classification models because they had the largest variance. The classification performance showed prediction accuracy rates as high as 99% for classifying the different cultivars of proso millet using a Gradient tree boosting ensemble machine learning algorithm. Moreover, the classification was successfully performed using only 15 and 5 selected spectral features (wavelengths), with an accuracy of 98.14% and 97.6%, respectively. The overall results indicate that NIR hyperspectral imaging could be used as a rapid and nondestructive method for the classification of proso millet seeds.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1330
Issue number9
StatePublished - May 2024

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2024 by the authors.


  • hyperspectral imaging
  • machine learning
  • millet
  • near infrared
  • proso millet variety

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Microbiology
  • Health(social science)
  • Health Professions (miscellaneous)
  • Plant Science


Dive into the research topics of 'Hyperspectral Imaging and Machine Learning as a Nondestructive Method for Proso Millet Seed Detection and Classification'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this