ICD–11 Complex PTSD in U.S. National and Veteran Samples: Prevalence and Structural Associations With PTSD

Erika J. Wolf, Mark W. Miller, Dean Kilpatrick, Heidi S. Resnick, Christal L. Badour, Brian P. Marx, Terence M. Keane, Raymond C. Rosen, Matthew J. Friedman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

108 Scopus citations

Abstract

The 11th edition of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD–11) is under development, and current proposals include major changes to trauma-related psychiatric diagnoses, including a heavily restricted definition of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and the addition of complex PTSD (CPTSD). We aimed to test the postulates of CPTSD in samples of 2,695 community participants and 323 trauma-exposed military veterans. CPTSD prevalence estimates were 0.6% and 13% in the community and veteran samples, respectively; one quarter to one half of those with PTSD met criteria for CPTSD. There were no differences in trauma exposure across diagnoses. A factor mixture model with two latent dimensional variables and four latent classes provided the best fit in both samples: Classes differed by their level of symptom severity but did not differ as a function of the proposed PTSD versus CPTSD diagnoses. These findings should raise concerns about the distinctions between CPTSD and PTSD proposed for ICD–11.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)215-229
Number of pages15
JournalClinical Psychological Science
Volume3
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 1 2015

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2014, © The Author(s) 2014.

Keywords

  • ICD
  • complex posttraumatic stress disorder
  • factor mixture model
  • taxonomy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Psychology

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