Immobilization of domestic goats (Capra hircus) using orally administered carfentanil citrate and detomidine hydrochloride

Jonathan M. Sleeman, Wyndee Carter, Thomas Tobin, Edward C. Ramsay

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations


Eight domestic goats (Capra hircus) were anesthetized with a combination of carfentanil citrate and detomidine HCl, each at a dosage of 60 μg/kg, mixed with an equal volume of 0.5% saponin, an absorption enhancer. The drug combination was delivered by hand directly into the buccal cavity. Physiologic parameters were measured prior to drug administration and at 5-min intervals after the goats reached sternal recumbency. Depth of anesthesia was assessed at the same time intervals following drug administration. Blood was drawn prior to drug administration, at initial contact following sustained sternal recumbency, and at 15-min intervals thereafter. Serum carfentanil and detomidine levels were measured using slightly modified commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits and techniques. Mean (±SD) induction time (time from drug administration to sternal recumbency) was 22 ± 4.3 min (n = 8), and inductions were characterized by long excitement phases (9.3 ± 5.8 min). There was considerable variation in the depth of anesthesia. Three goats appeared to be lightly anesthetized, two goats showed moderate levels of anesthesia, and three goats attained levels of anesthesia adequate for the performance of minor veterinary procedures. Physiologic changes caused by the drug combination were minor and were consistent with changes seen with parenteral administration of these drugs. Serum carfentanil levels were greatest at the time of initial contact for three goats and greatest 15 mm later for two other goats. Levels then decreased slightly during the procedures, suggesting carfentanil absorption in these animals was across the oral mucosa. Serum detomidine levels rose gradually throughout anesthesia. Reversals with naltrexone and yohimbine or atipamezole were rapid and smooth.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)158-165
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jun 1997


  • Anesthesia
  • Capra hircus
  • Carfentanil
  • Detomidine
  • Goat
  • Oral administration

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Animal Science and Zoology
  • General Veterinary


Dive into the research topics of 'Immobilization of domestic goats (Capra hircus) using orally administered carfentanil citrate and detomidine hydrochloride'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this