Immunomodulators as therapeutic agents in mitigating the progression of parkinson’s disease

Bethany Grimmig, Josh Morganti, Kevin Nash, Paula C. Bickford

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

18 Scopus citations


Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder that primarily afflicts the elderly. It is characterized by motor dysfunction due to extensive neuron loss in the substantia nigra pars compacta. There are multiple biological processes that are negatively impacted during the pathogenesis of PD, and are implicated in the cell death in this region. Neuroinflammation is evidently involved in PD pathology and mitigating the inflammatory cascade has been a therapeutic strategy. Age is the number one risk factor for PD and thus needs to be considered in the context of disease pathology. Here, we discuss the role of neuroinflammation within the context of aging as it applies to the development of PD, and the potential for two representative compounds, fractalkine and astaxanthin, to attenuate the pathophysiology that modulates neurodegeneration that occurs in Parkinson’s disease.

Original languageEnglish
Article number41
JournalBrain Sciences
Issue number4
StatePublished - Dec 2016

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2016 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


  • Astaxanthin
  • Fractalkine
  • Microglia
  • Neuroinflammation
  • Parkinson’s disease

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuroscience (all)


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